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** Contact: http://www.qt.io/licensing/
**
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#include "qrhi_p.h"
#include <qmath.h>

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#include "qrhinull_p.h"
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#ifndef QT_NO_OPENGL
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#include "qrhigles2_p.h"
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#endif
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#if QT_CONFIG(vulkan)
#include "qrhivulkan_p.h"
#endif
#ifdef Q_OS_WIN
#include "qrhid3d11_p.h"
#endif
#ifdef Q_OS_DARWIN
#include "qrhimetal_p.h"
#endif

QT_BEGIN_NAMESPACE

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/*!
    \class QRhi
    \inmodule QtRhi
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    \brief Accelerated 2D/3D graphics API abstraction.
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     QRhi is an abstraction for hardware accelerated graphics APIs, such as,
     \l{https://www.khronos.org/opengl/}{OpenGL},
     \l{https://www.khronos.org/opengles/}{OpenGL ES},
     \l{https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/windows/desktop/direct3d}{Direct3D},
     \l{https://developer.apple.com/metal/}{Metal}, and
     \l{https://www.khronos.org/vulkan/}{Vulkan}.

    Each QRhi instance is backed by a backend for a specific graphics API. The
    selection of the backend is a run time choice and is up to the application
    or library that creates the QRhi instance. Some backends are available on
    multiple platforms (OpenGL, Vulkan, Null), while APIs specific to a given
    platform are only available when running on the platform in question (Metal
    on macOS/iOS/tvOS, Direct3D on Windows).

    \section2 Design Fundamentals

    A QRhi cannot be instantiated directly. Instead, use the create()
    function. Delete the QRhi instance normally to release the graphics device.

    \section3 Resources

    Instances of classes deriving from QRhiResource, such as, QRhiBuffer,
    QRhiTexture, etc., encapsulate zero, one, or more native graphics
    resources. Instances of such classes are always created via the \c new
    functions of the QRhi, such as, newBuffer(), newTexture(),
    newTextureRenderTarget(), newSwapChain().

    \list

    \li The returned value from both create() and functions like newBuffer() is
    owned by the caller.

    \li Unlike QRhi, subclasses of QRhiResource should not be destroyed
    directly via delete without calling QRhiResource::release(). The typical
    approach is to call QRhiResource::releaseAndDestroy(). This is equivalent
    to QRhiResource::release() followed by \c delete.

    \li Just creating a QRhiResource subclass never allocates or initalizes any
    native resources. That is only done when calling the \c build function of a
    subclass, for example, QRhiBuffer::build() or QRhiTexture::build().

    \li The exception is
    QRhiTextureRenderTarget::newCompatibleRenderPassDescriptor() and
    QRhiSwapChain::newCompatibleRenderPassDescriptor(). There is no \c build
    operation for these and the returned object is immediately active.

    \li The resource objects themselves are treated as immutable: once a
    resource is built, changing any parameters via the setters, such as,
    QRhiTexture::setPixelSize(), has no effect, unless the underlying native
    resource is released and \c build is called again. See more about resource
    reuse in the sections below.

    \li The underlying native resources are scheduled for releasing by calling
    QRhiResource::release(). Backends often queue release requests and defer
    executing them to an unspecified time, this is hidden from the
    applications. This way applications do not have to worry about releasing a
    native resource that may still be in use by an in flight frame.

    \endlist

    \badcode
        vbuf = rhi->newBuffer(QRhiBuffer::Immutable, QRhiBuffer::VertexBuffer, sizeof(vertexData));
        if (!vbuf->build()) { error }
        ...
        vbuf->releaseAndDestroy();
    \endcode

    \section3 Resource reuse

    From the user's point of view the QRhiResource is reusable immediately
    after calling QRhiResource::release(). With the exception of swapchains,
    calling \c build on an already built object does an implicit release. This
    provides a handy shortcut to reuse a QRhiResource instance with different
    parameters, with a new native graphics resource underneath.

    The importance of reusing the same object lies in the fact that some
    objects reference other objects: for example, a QRhiShaderResourceBindings
    can reference QRhiBuffer, QRhiTexture, and QRhiSampler instances. If now
    one of these buffers need to be resized or a sampler parameter needs
    changing, destroying and creating a whole new QRhiBuffer or QRhiSampler
    would invalidate all references to the old instance. By just changing the
    appropriate parameters via QRhiBuffer::setSize() or similar and then
    calling QRhiBuffer::build(), everything works as expected and there is no
    need to touch the QRhiShaderResourceBindings at all, even though there is a
    good chance that under the hood the QRhiBuffer is now backed by a whole new
    native buffer.

    \badcode
        ubuf = rhi->newBuffer(QRhiBuffer::Dynamic, QRhiBuffer::UniformBuffer, 256);
        ubuf->build();

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        srb = rhi->newShaderResourceBindings()
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        srb->setBindings({
            QRhiShaderResourceBinding::uniformBuffer(0, QRhiShaderResourceBinding::VertexStage | QRhiShaderResourceBinding::FragmentStage, ubuf)
        });
        srb->build();

        ...

        // now suddenly we need buffer with a different size
        ubuf->setSize(512);
        ubuf->build(); // same as ubuf->release(); ubuf->build();

        // that's it, srb needs no changes whatsoever
    \endcode

    \section3 Pooled objects

    There are pooled objects too, like QRhiResourceUpdateBatch. An instance is
    retrieved via a \c next function, such as, nextResourceUpdateBatch(). The
    caller does not own the returned instance in this case. The only valid way
    of operating here is calling functions on the QRhiResourceUpdateBatch and
    then passing it to QRhiCommandBuffer::beginPass() or
    QRhiCommandBuffer::endPass(). These functions take care of returning the
    batch to the pool. Alternatively, a batch can be "canceled" and returned to
    the pool without processing by calling QRhiResourceUpdateBatch::release().

    A typical pattern is thus:

    \badcode
        QRhiResourceUpdateBatch *resUpdates = rhi->nextResourceUpdateBatch();
        ...
        resUpdates->updateDynamicBuffer(ubuf, 0, 64, mvp.constData());
        if (!image.isNull()) {
            resUpdates->uploadTexture(texture, image);
            image = QImage();
        }
        ...
        QRhiCommandBuffer *cb = m_sc->currentFrameCommandBuffer();
        cb->beginPass(swapchain->currentFrameRenderTarget(), clearCol, clearDs, resUpdates);
    \endcode

    \section3 Swapchain specifics

    QRhiSwapChain features some special semantics due to the peculiar nature of
    swapchains.

    \list

    \li It has no \c build but rather a QRhiSwapChain::buildOrResize().
    Repeatedly calling this function is \b not the same as calling
    QRhiSwapChain::release() followed by QRhiSwapChain::buildOrResize(). This
    is because swapchains often have ways to handle the case where buffers need
    to be resized in a manner that is more efficient than a brute force
    destroying and recreating from scratch.

    \li An active QRhiSwapChain must be released by calling
    QRhiSwapChain::release() whenever the targeted QWindow sends the
    QPlatformSurfaceEvent::SurfaceAboutToBeDestroyed event. It should not be
    postponed since releasing the swapchain may become problematic when the
    native window is not around anymore (e.g. because the QPlatformWindow got
    destroyed already when getting a QWindow::close())

    \endlist

    \section3 Ownership

    The general rule is no ownership transfer. Creating a QRhi with an already
    existing graphics device does not mean the QRhi takes ownership of the
    device object. Similarly, ownership is not given away when a device or
    texture object is "exported" via QRhi::nativeHandles() or
    QRhiTexture::nativeHandles(). Most importantly, passing pointers in structs
    and via setters does not transfer ownership.

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    \section3 Threading

    A QRhi instance can be created and used on any thread but all usage must be
    limited to that one single thread. When it comes to native objects, such as
    OpenGL contexts, passed in in QRhiInitParams, it is up to the application
    to ensure they are not misused by other threads.

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    \sa {Qt Shader Tools}
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 */

/*!
    \enum QRhi::Implementation
    Describes which graphics API-specific backend gets used by a QRhi instance.

    \value Null
    \value Vulkan
    \value OpenGLES2
    \value D3D11
    \value Metal
 */

/*!
    \enum QRhi::Flag
    Describes what special features to enable.

    \value EnableProfiling Enables gathering timing (CPU, GPU) and resource
    (QRhiBuffer, QRhiTexture, etc.) information and additional metadata. See
    QRhiProfiler. Avoid enabling in production builds as it may involve a
    performance penalty.

    \value EnableDebugMarkers Enables debug marker groups. Without this frame
    debugging features like making debug groups and custom resource name
    visible in external GPU debugging tools will not be available and functions
    like QRhiCommandBuffer::debugMarkBegin() will become a no-op. Avoid
    enabling in production builds as it may involve a performance penalty.
 */

/*!
    \enum QRhi::FrameOpResult
    Describes the result of operations that can have a soft failure.

    \value FrameOpSuccess Success

    \value FrameOpError Unspecified error

    \value FrameOpSwapChainOutOfDate The swapchain is in an inconsistent state
    internally. This can be recoverable by attempting to repeat the operation
    (such as, beginFrame()) later.

    \value FrameOpDeviceLost The graphics device was lost. This can be
    recoverable by attempting to repeat the operation (such as, beginFrame())
    and releasing and reinitializing all objects backed by native graphics
    resources.
 */

/*!
    \enum QRhi::Feature
    Flag values to indicate what features are supported by the backend currently in use.

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    \value MultisampleTexture Indicates that textures with a sample count larger
    than 1 are supported.
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    \value MultisampleRenderBuffer Indicates that renderbuffers with a sample
    count larger than 1 are supported.
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    \value DebugMarkers Indicates that debug marker groups (and so
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    QRhiCommandBuffer::debugMarkBegin()) are supported.

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    \value Timestamps Indicates that command buffer timestamps are supported.
    Relevant for QRhiProfiler::gpuFrameTimes().
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    \value Instancing Indicates that instanced drawing is supported.
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    \value CustomInstanceStepRate Indicates that instance step rates other than
    1 are supported.
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    \value PrimitiveRestart Indicates that restarting the assembly of
    primitives when encountering an index value of 0xFFFF
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    (\l{QRhiCommandBuffer::IndexUInt16}{IndexUInt16}) or 0xFFFFFFFF
    (\l{QRhiCommandBuffer::IndexUInt32}{IndexUInt32}) is always enabled, for
    certain primitive topologies at least. Due to the wildly varying primitive
    restart behavior and support in the underlying graphics APIs, primitive
    restart cannot be controlled with QRhi. Instead, applications must assume
    that whenever this feature is reported as supported, the above mentioned
    index values \c may be treated specially, depending on the topology. The
    only two topologies where primitive restart is guaranteed to behave
    identically across backends, as long as this feature is reported as
    supported, are \l{QRhiGraphicsPipeline::LineStrip}{LineStrip} and
    \l{QRhiGraphicsPipeline::TriangleStrip}{TriangleStrip}.
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 */

/*!
    \enum QRhi::ResourceSizeLimit
    Describes the resource limit to query.

    \value TextureSizeMin Minimum texture width and height. This is typically
    1. The minimum texture size is handled gracefully, meaning attempting to
    create a texture with an empty size will instead create a texture with the
    minimum size.

    \value TextureSizeMax Maximum texture width and height. This depends on the
    graphics API and sometimes the platform or implementation as well.
    Typically the value is in the range 4096 - 16384. Attempting to create
    textures larger than this is expected to fail.
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 */

/*!
    \class QRhiInitParams
    \inmodule QtRhi
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    \brief Base class for backend-specific initialization parameters.
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 */

/*!
    \class QRhiColorClearValue
    \inmodule QtRhi
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    \brief Specifies a clear color for a color buffer.
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 */

/*!
    \class QRhiDepthStencilClearValue
    \inmodule QtRhi
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    \brief Specifies clear values for a depth or stencil buffer.
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 */

/*!
    \class QRhiViewport
    \inmodule QtRhi
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    \brief Specifies a viewport rectangle.
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    Used with QRhiCommandBuffer::setViewport().

    \note QRhi assumes OpenGL-style viewport coordinates, meaning x and y are
    bottom-left.

    Typical usage is like the following:

    \badcode
      const QSize outputSizeInPixels = swapchain->currentPixelSize();
      const QRhiViewport viewport(0, 0, outputSizeInPixels.width(), outputSizeInPixels.height());
      cb->beginPass(swapchain->currentFrameRenderTarget(), { 0, 0, 0, 1 }, { 1, 0 });
      cb->setGraphicsPipeline(ps);
      cb->setViewport(viewport);
      ...
    \endcode

    \sa QRhiCommandBuffer::setViewport(), QRhi::clipSpaceCorrMatrix(), QRhiScissor
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/*!
    \class QRhiScissor
    \inmodule QtRhi
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    \brief Specifies a scissor rectangle.
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    Used with QRhiCommandBuffer::setScissor(). Setting a scissor rectangle is
    only possible with a QRhiGraphicsPipeline that has
    QRhiGraphicsPipeline::UsesScissor set.

    \note QRhi assumes OpenGL-style viewport coordinates, meaning x and y are
    bottom-left.

    \sa QRhiCommandBuffer::setScissor(), QRhiViewport
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 */

/*!
    \class QRhiVertexInputLayout
    \inmodule QtRhi
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    \brief Describes the layout of vertex inputs consumed by a vertex shader.
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 */

/*!
    \class QRhiVertexInputLayout::Binding
    \inmodule QtRhi
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    \brief Describes a vertex input binding.
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    Specifies the stride (in bytes, must be a multiple of 4), the
    classification and optionally the instance step rate.

    As an example, assume a vertex shader with the following inputs:

    \badcode
        layout(location = 0) in vec4 position;
        layout(location = 1) in vec2 texcoord;
    \endcode

    Now let's assume also that 3 component vertex positions \c{(x, y, z)} and 2
    component texture coordinates \c{(u, v)} are provided in a non-interleaved
    format in a buffer (or separate buffers even). Definining two bindings
    could then be done like this:

    \badcode
        QRhiVertexInputLayout inputLayout;
        inputLayout.bindings = {
            { 3 * sizeof(float) },
            { 2 * sizeof(float) }
        };
    \endcode

    Only the stride is interesting here since instancing is not used. The
    binding number is given by the index of the QRhiVertexInputLayout::Binding
    element in the bindings vector of the QRhiVertexInputLayout.

    Once a graphics pipeline with this vertex input layout is bound, the vertex
    inputs could be set up like the following for drawing a cube with 36
    vertices, assuming we have a single buffer with first the positions and
    then the texture coordinates:

    \badcode
        cb->setVertexInput(0, { { cubeBuf, 0 }, { cubeBuf, 36 * 3 * sizeof(float) } });
    \endcode

    Note how the index defined by \c {startBinding + i}, where \c i is the
    index in the second argument of
    \l{QRhiCommandBuffer::setVertexInput()}{setVertexInput()}, matches the
    index of the corresponding entry in the \c bindings vector of the
    QRhiVertexInputLayout.

    \note the stride must always be a multiple of 4.

    \sa QRhiCommandBuffer::setVertexInput()
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 */

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/*!
    \enum QRhiVertexInputLayout::Binding::Classification
    Describes the input data classification.

    \value PerVertex Data is per-vertex
    \value PerInstance Data is per-instance
 */

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/*!
    \class QRhiVertexInputLayout::Attribute
    \inmodule QtRhi
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    \brief Describes a single vertex input element.
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    The members specify the binding number, location, format, and offset for a
    single vertex input element.

    \note For HLSL it is assumed that the vertex shader uses
    \c{TEXCOORD<location>} as the semantic for each input. Hence no separate
    semantic name and index.

    As an example, assume a vertex shader with the following inputs:

    \badcode
        layout(location = 0) in vec4 position;
        layout(location = 1) in vec2 texcoord;
    \endcode

    Now let's assume that we have 3 component vertex positions \c{(x, y, z)}
    and 2 component texture coordinates \c{(u, v)} are provided in a
    non-interleaved format in a buffer (or separate buffers even). Once two
    bindings are defined, the attributes could be specified as:

    \badcode
        QRhiVertexInputLayout inputLayout;
        inputLayout.bindings = {
            { 3 * sizeof(float) },
            { 2 * sizeof(float) }
        };
        inputLayout.attributes = {
            { 0, 0, QRhiVertexInputLayout::Attribute::Float3, 0 },
            { 1, 1, QRhiVertexInputLayout::Attribute::Float2, 0 }
        };
    \endcode

    Once a graphics pipeline with this vertex input layout is bound, the vertex
    inputs could be set up like the following for drawing a cube with 36
    vertices, assuming we have a single buffer with first the positions and
    then the texture coordinates:

    \badcode
        cb->setVertexInput(0, { { cubeBuf, 0 }, { cubeBuf, 36 * 3 * sizeof(float) } });
    \endcode

    When working with interleaved data, there will typically be just one
    binding, with multiple attributes refering to that same buffer binding
    point:

    \badcode
        QRhiVertexInputLayout inputLayout;
        inputLayout.bindings = {
            { 5 * sizeof(float) }
        };
        inputLayout.attributes = {
            { 0, 0, QRhiVertexInputLayout::Attribute::Float3, 0 },
            { 0, 1, QRhiVertexInputLayout::Attribute::Float2, 3 * sizeof(float) }
        };
    \endcode

    and then:

    \badcode
        cb->setVertexInput(0, { { interleavedCubeBuf, 0 } });
    \endcode

    \sa QRhiCommandBuffer::setVertexInput()
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/*!
    \enum QRhiVertexInputLayout::Attribute::Format
    Specifies the type of the element data.

    \value Float4 Four component float vector
    \value Float3 Three component float vector
    \value Float2 Two component float vector
    \value Float Float
    \value UNormByte4 Four component normalized unsigned byte vector
    \value UNormByte2 Two component normalized unsigned byte vector
    \value UNormByte Normalized unsigned byte
 */

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/*!
    \class QRhiGraphicsShaderStage
    \inmodule QtRhi
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    \brief Specifies the type and the shader code for a shader stage in the graphics pipeline.
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    \note There is no geometry stage because some graphics APIs (Metal) have no support
    for it.
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/*!
    \enum QRhiGraphicsShaderStage::Type
    Specifies the type of the shader stage.

    \value Vertex Vertex stage
    \value Fragment Fragment (pixel) stage
    \value TessellationControl Tessellation control (hull) stage
    \value TessellationEvaluation Tessellation evaluation (domain) stage
 */

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/*!
    \class QRhiShaderResourceBinding
    \inmodule QtRhi
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    \brief Specifies the shader resources that are made visible to one or more shader stages.
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/*!
    \enum QRhiShaderResourceBinding::Type
    Specifies type of the shader resource bound to a binding point

    \value UniformBuffer Uniform buffer
    \value SampledTexture Combined image sampler
 */

/*!
    \enum QRhiShaderResourceBinding::StageFlag
    Flag values to indicate which stages the shader resource is visible in

    \value VertexStage Vertex stage
    \value FragmentStage Fragment (pixel) stage
    \value TessellationControlStage Tessellation control (hull) stage
    \value TessellationEvaluationStage Tessellation evaluation (domain) stage
 */

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/*!
    \class QRhiTextureRenderTargetDescription
    \inmodule QtRhi
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    \brief Describes the color and depth or depth/stencil attachments of a render target.
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    A texture render target has zero or more textures as color attachments,
    zero or one renderbuffer as combined depth/stencil buffer or zero or one
    texture as depth buffer.

    \note \l depthStencilBuffer and \l depthTexture cannot be both set.
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 */

/*!
    \class QRhiTextureRenderTargetDescription::ColorAttachment
    \inmodule QtRhi
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    \brief Describes the a single color attachment of a render target.

    A color attachment is either a QRhiTexture or a QRhiRenderBuffer. The
    former, when \l texture is set, is used in most cases.

    \note \l texture and \l renderBuffer cannot be both set.

    Setting renderBuffer instead is recommended only when multisampling is
    needed. Relying on QRhi::MultisampleRenderBuffer is a better choice than
    QRhi::MultisampleTexture in practice since the former is available in more
    run time configurations (e.g. when running on OpenGL ES 3.0 which has no
    support for multisample textures, but does support multisample
    renderbuffers).

    When targeting a non-multisample texture, the \l layer and \l level
    indicate the targeted layer (face index \c{0-5} for cubemaps) and mip
    level.

    When \l texture or \l renderBuffer is multisample, \l resolveTexture can be
    set optionally. When set, samples are resolved automatically into that
    (non-multisample) texture at the end of the render pass. When rendering
    into a multisample renderbuffers, this is the only way to get resolved,
    non-multisample content out of them. Multisample textures allow sampling in
    shaders so for them this is just one option.

    \note when resolving is enabled, the multisample data may not be written
    out at all. This means that the multisample \l texture must not be used
    afterwards with shaders for sampling when \l resolveTexture is set.
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 */

/*!
    \class QRhiTextureUploadDescription
    \inmodule QtRhi
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    \brief Describes a texture upload operation.
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    \note Cubemaps have one layer for each of the six faces in the order +X,
    -X, +Y, -Y, +Z, -Z.
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/*!
    \class QRhiTextureUploadDescription::Layer
    \inmodule QtRhi
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    \brief Describes one layer (face for cubemaps) in a texture upload operation.
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/*!
    \class QRhiTextureUploadDescription::Layer::MipLevel
    \inmodule QtRhi
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    \brief Describes one mip level in a layer in a texture upload operation.
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    The source content is specified either as a QImage or as a raw blob. The
    former is only allowed for uncompressed textures, while the latter is only
    supported for compressed ones.

    \note \l image and \l compressedData cannot be both set.

    \l destinationTopLeft specifies the top-left corner of the target
    rectangle. Defaults to (0, 0).

    An empty \l sourceSize (the default) indicates that size is assumed to be
    the size of the subresource. For uncompressed textures this implies that
    the size of the source \l image must match the subresource. For compressed
    textures sufficient amount of data must be provided in \l compressedData.

    \note With compressed textures the first upload must always match the
    subresource size due to graphics API limitations with some backends.

    \l sourceTopLeft is is only supported for uncompressed textures, and
    specifies the top-left corner of the source rectangle.

    \note Setting \l sourceSize or \l sourceTopLeft may trigger a QImage copy
    internally, depending on the format and the backend.
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/*!
    \class QRhiTextureCopyDescription
    \inmodule QtRhi
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    \brief Describes a texture-to-texture copy operation.
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    An empty \l pixelSize (the default) indicates that the entire subresource
    is to be copied.

    \note The source texture must be created with
    QRhiTexture::UsedAsTransferSource.
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/*!
    \class QRhiReadbackDescription
    \inmodule QtRhi
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    \brief Describes a readback (reading back texture contents from possibly GPU-only memory) operation.
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    The source of the readback operation is either a QRhiTexture or the
    current backbuffer of the currently targeted QRhiSwapChain. When \l
    texture is not set, the swapchain is used. Otherwise the specified
    QRhiTexture is treated as the source.

    \note Textures used in readbacks must be created with
    QRhiTexture::UsedAsTransferSource.

    \note Swapchains used in readbacks must be created with
    QRhiSwapChain::UsedAsTransferSource.

    \l layer and \l level are only applicable when the source is a QRhiTexture.

    \note Multisample textures cannot be read back. Readbacks are supported for
    multisample swapchain buffers however.
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/*!
    \class QRhiReadbackResult
    \inmodule QtRhi
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    \brief Describes the results of a potentially asynchronous readback operation.
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    When \l completed is set, the function is invoked when the \l data is
    available. \l format and \l pixelSize are set upon completion together with
    \l data.
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/*!
    \class QRhiNativeHandles
    \inmodule QtRhi
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    \brief Base class for classes exposing backend-specific collections of native resource objects.
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/*!
    \class QRhiResource
    \inmodule QtRhi
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    \brief Base class for classes encapsulating native resource objects.
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/*!
    \class QRhiBuffer
    \inmodule QtRhi
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    \brief Vertex, index, or uniform (constant) buffer resource.
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/*!
    \fn void QRhiBuffer::setSize(int sz)

    Sets the size of the buffer in bytes. The size is normally specified in
    QRhi::newBuffer() so this function is only used when the size has to be
    changed. As with other setters, the size only takes effect when calling
    build(), and for already built buffers this involves releasing the previous
    native resource and creating new ones under the hood.

    Backends may choose to allocate buffers bigger than \a sz in order to
    fulfill alignment requirements. This is hidden from the applications and
    size() will always report the size requested in \a sz.
 */

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/*!
    \enum QRhiBuffer::Type
    Specifies type of buffer resource.

    \value Immutable Indicates that the data is not expected to change ever
    after the initial upload. Under the hood such buffer resources are
    typically placed in device local (GPU) memory (on systems where
    applicable). Uploading new data is possible, but frequent changes can be
    expensive. Upload typically happens by copying to a separate, host visible
    staging buffer from which a GPU buffer-to-buffer copy is issued into the
    actual GPU-only buffer.

    \value Static Indicates that the data is expected to change only
    infrequently. Typically placed in device local (GPU) memory, where
    applicable. On backends where host visible staging buffers are used for
    uploading, the staging buffers are kept around for this type, unlike with
    Immutable, so subsequent uploads do not suffer in performance. Frequent
    updates should be avoided.

    \value Dynamic Indicates that the data is expected to change frequently.
    Not recommended for large buffers. Typically backed by host visible memory
    in 2 copies in order to allow for changing without stalling the graphics
    pipeline. The double buffering is managed transparently to the applications
    and is not exposed in the API here in any form.
 */

/*!
    \enum QRhiBuffer::UsageFlag
    Flag values to specify how the buffer is going to be used.

    \value VertexBuffer Vertex buffer
    \value IndexBuffer Index buffer
    \value UniformBuffer Uniform (constant) buffer
 */

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/*!
    \class QRhiTexture
    \inmodule QtRhi
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    \brief Texture resource.
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/*!
    \enum QRhiTexture::Flag

    Flag values to specify how the texture is going to be used. Not honoring
    the flags set before build() and attempting to use the texture in ways that
    was not declared upfront can lead to unspecified behavior or decreased
    performance depending on the backend and the underlying graphics API.

    \value RenderTarget The texture going to be used in combination with
    QRhiTextureRenderTarget

    \value ChangesFrequently Performance hint to indicate that the texture
    contents will change frequently and so staging buffers, if any, are to be
    kept alive to avoid performance hits

    \value CubeMap The texture is a cubemap. Such textures have 6 layers, one
    for each face in the order of +X, -X, +Y, -Y, +Z, -Z. Cubemap textures
    cannot be multisample.

     \value MipMapped The texture has mipmaps. The appropriate mip count is
     calculated automatically and can also be retrieved via
     QRhi::mipLevelsForSize(). The images for the mip levels have to be
     provided in the texture uploaded or generated via
     QRhiResourceUpdateBatch::generateMips(). Multisample textures cannot have
     mipmaps.

    \value sRGB Use an sRGB format

    \value UsedAsTransferSource The texture is used as the source of a texture
    copy or readback, meaning the texture is given as the source in
    QRhiResourceUpdateBatch::copyTexture() or
    QRhiResourceUpdateBatch::readBackTexture().

     \value UsedWithGenerateMips The texture is going to be used with
     QRhiResourceUpdateBatch::generateMips().
 */

/*!
    \enum QRhiTexture::Format

    Specifies the texture format. See also QRhi::isTextureFormatSupported() and
    note that flags() can modify the format when QRhiTexture::sRGB is set.

    \value UnknownFormat Not a valid format. This cannot be passed to setFormat().
    \value RGBA8
    \value BGRA8
    \value R8
    \value R16
    \value D16
    \value D32
    \value BC1
    \value BC2
    \value BC3
    \value BC4
    \value BC5
    \value BC6H
    \value BC7
    \value ETC2_RGB8
    \value ETC2_RGB8A1
    \value ETC2_RGBA8
    \value ASTC_4x4
    \value ASTC_5x4
    \value ASTC_5x5
    \value ASTC_6x5
    \value ASTC_6x6
    \value ASTC_8x5
    \value ASTC_8x6
    \value ASTC_8x8
    \value ASTC_10x5
    \value ASTC_10x6
    \value ASTC_10x8
    \value ASTC_10x10
    \value ASTC_12x10
    \value ASTC_12x12
 */

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/*!
    \class QRhiSampler
    \inmodule QtRhi
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    \brief Sampler resource.
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/*!
    \enum QRhiSampler::Filter
    Specifies the minification, magnification, or mipmap filtering

    \value None Applicable only for mipmapMode(), indicates no mipmaps to be used
    \value Nearest
    \value Linear
 */

/*!
    \enum QRhiSampler::AddressMode
    Specifies the addressing mode

    \value Repeat
    \value ClampToEdge
    \value Border
    \value Mirror
    \value MirrorOnce
 */

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/*!
    \class QRhiRenderBuffer
    \inmodule QtRhi
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    \brief Renderbuffer resource.
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    Renderbuffers cannot be sampled or read but have some benefits over
    textures in some cases:

    A DepthStencil renderbuffer may be lazily allocated and be backed by
    transient memory with some APIs. On some platforms this may mean the
    depth/stencil buffer uses no physical backing at all.

    Color renderbuffers are useful since QRhi::MultisampleRenderBuffer may be
    supported even when QRhi::MultisampleTexture is not.

    How the renderbuffer is implemented by a backend is not exposed to the
    applications. In some cases it may be backed by ordinary textures, while in
    others there may be a different kind of native resource used.
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/*!
    \enum QRhiRenderBuffer::Type
    Specifies the type of the renderbuffer

    \value DepthStencil Combined depth/stencil
    \value Color Color
 */

/*!
    \enum QRhiRenderBuffer::Flag
    Flag values for flags() and setFlags()

    \value UsedWithSwapChainOnly For DepthStencil renderbuffers this indicates
    that the renderbuffer is only used in combination with a QRhiSwapChain and
    never in other ways. Relevant with some backends, while others ignore it.
    With OpenGL where a separate windowing system interface API is in use (EGL,
    GLX, etc.), the flag is important since it avoids creating any actual
    resource as there is already a windowing system provided depth/stencil
    buffer as requested by QSurfaceFormat.
 */

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/*!
    \class QRhiRenderPassDescriptor
    \inmodule QtRhi
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    \brief Render pass resource.
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 */

/*!
    \class QRhiRenderTarget
    \inmodule QtRhi
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    \brief Represents an onscreen (swapchain) or offscreen (texture) render target.
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/*!
    \enum QRhiRenderTarget::Type
    Specifies the type of the render target

    \value RtRef This is a reference to another resource's buffer(s). Used by
    targets returned from QRhiSwapChain::currentFrameRenderTarget().

    \value RtTexture This is a QRhiTextureRenderTarget.
 */

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/*!
    \class QRhiTextureRenderTarget
    \inmodule QtRhi
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    \brief Texture render target resource.
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    A texture render target allows rendering into one or more textures,
    optionally with a depth texture or depth/stencil renderbuffer.

    \note Textures used in combination with QRhiTextureRenderTarget must be
    created with the QRhiTexture::RenderTarget flag.

    The simplest example of creating a render target with a texture as its
    single color attachment:

    \badcode
        texture = rhi->newTexture(QRhiTexture::RGBA8, size, 1, QRhiTexture::RenderTarget);
        texture->build();
        rt = rhi->newTextureRenderTarget({ texture });
        rp = rt->newCompatibleRenderPassDescriptor();
        rt->setRenderPassDescriptor(rt);
        rt->build();
        // rt can now be used with beginPass()
    \endcode
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/*!
    \enum QRhiTextureRenderTarget::Flag
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    Flag values describing the load/store behavior for the render target. The
    load/store behavior may be baked into native resources under the hood,
    depending on the backend, and therefore it needs to be known upfront and
    cannot be changed without rebuilding (and so releasing and creating new
    native resources).
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    \value PreserveColorContents Indicates that the contents of the color
    attachments is to be loaded when starting a render pass, instead of
    clearing. This is potentially more expensive, especially on mobile (tiled)
    GPUs, but allows preserving the existing contents between passes.

    \value PreserveDepthStencilContents Indicates that the contents of the
    depth texture is to be loaded when starting a render pass, instead
    clearing. Only applicable when a texture is used as the depth buffer
    (QRhiTextureRenderTargetDescription::depthTexture is set) because
    depth/stencil renderbuffers may not have any physical backing and data may
    not be written out in the first place.
 */

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/*!
    \class QRhiShaderResourceBindings
    \inmodule QtRhi
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    \brief Encapsulates resources for making buffer, texture, sampler resources visible to shaders.
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    A QRhiShaderResourceBindings is a collection of QRhiShaderResourceBinding
    instances, each of which describe a single binding.

    Take a fragment shader with the following interface:

    \badcode
        layout(std140, binding = 0) uniform buf {
            mat4 mvp;
            int flip;
        } ubuf;

        layout(binding = 1) uniform sampler2D tex;
    \endcode

    To make resources visible to the shader, the following
    QRhiShaderResourceBindings could be created and then passed to
    QRhiGraphicsPipeline::setShaderResourceBindings():

    \badcode
        srb = rhi->newShaderResourceBindings();
        srb->setBindings({
            QRhiShaderResourceBinding::uniformBuffer(0, QRhiShaderResourceBinding::VertexStage | QRhiShaderResourceBinding::FragmentStage, ubuf),
            QRhiShaderResourceBinding::sampledTexture(1, QRhiShaderResourceBinding::FragmentStage, texture, sampler)
        });
        srb->build();
        ...
        ps = rhi->newGraphicsPipeline();
        ...
        ps->setShaderResourceBindings(srb);
        ps->build();
        ...
        cb->setGraphicsPipeline(ps);
    \endcode

    This assumes that \c ubuf is a QRhiBuffer, \c texture is a QRhiTexture,
    while \a sampler is a QRhiSampler. The example also assumes that the
    uniform block is present in the vertex shader as well so the same buffer is
    made visible to the vertex stage too.

    \section3 Advanced usage

    Building on the above example, let's assume that a pass now needs to use
    the exact same pipeline and shaders with a different texture. Creating a
    whole separate QRhiGraphicsPipeline just for this would be an overkill.
    This is why QRhiCommandBuffer::setGraphicsPipeline() allows specifying an
    optional \a srb argument. As long as the layouts (so the number of bindings
    and the binding points) match between two QRhiShaderResourceBindings, they
    can both be used with the same pipeline, assuming the pipeline was built
    with one of them in the first place.

    Creating and then using a new \c srb2 that is very similar to \c srb with
    the exception of referencing another texture could be implemented like the
    following:

    \badcode
        srb2 = rhi->newShaderResourceBindings();
        QVector<QRhiShaderResourceBinding> bindings = srb->bindings();
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        bindings[1] = QRhiShaderResourceBinding::sampledTexture(1, QRhiShaderResourceBinding::FragmentStage, anotherTexture, sampler);
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        srb2->setBindings(bindings);
        srb2->build();
        ...
        cb->setGraphicsPipeline(ps, srb2);
    \endcode
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 */

/*!
    \class QRhiGraphicsPipeline
    \inmodule QtRhi
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    \brief Graphics pipeline state resource.
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    \note Setting the shader resource bindings is mandatory. The referenced
    QRhiShaderResourceBindings must already be built by the time build() is
    called.
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    \note Setting the render pass descriptor is mandatory. To obtain a
    QRhiRenderPassDescriptor that can be passed to setRenderPassDescriptor(),
    use either QRhiTextureRenderTarget::newCompatibleRenderPassDescriptor() or
    QRhiSwapChain::newCompatibleRenderPassDescriptor().

    \note Setting the vertex input layout is mandatory.

    \note Setting the shader stages is mandatory.

    \note sampleCount() defaults to 1 and must match the sample count of the
    render target's color and depth stencil attachments.

    \note The depth test, depth write, and stencil test are disabled by
    default.

    \note stencilReadMask() and stencilWriteMask() apply to both faces. They
    both default to 0xFF.
 */

/*!
    \fn void QRhiGraphicsPipeline::setTargetBlends(const QVector<TargetBlend> &blends)

    Sets the blend specification for color attachments. Each element in \a
    blends corresponds to a color attachment of the render target.

    By default no blends are set, which is a shortcut to disabling blending and
    enabling color write for all four channels.
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/*!
    \enum QRhiGraphicsPipeline::Flag

    Flag values for describing the dynamic state of the pipeline. The viewport is always dynamic.

    \value UsesBlendConstants Indicates that a blend color constant will be set
    via QRhiCommandBuffer::setBlendConstants()

    \value UsesStencilRef Indicates that a stencil reference value will be set
    via QRhiCommandBuffer::setStencilRef()

    \value UsesScissor Indicates that a scissor rectangle will be set via
    QRhiCommandBuffer::setScissor()
 */

/*!
    \enum QRhiGraphicsPipeline::Topology
    Specifies the primitive topology

    \value Triangles (default)
    \value TriangleStrip
    \value Lines
    \value LineStrip
    \value Points
 */

/*!
    \enum QRhiGraphicsPipeline::CullMode
    Specifies the culling mode

    \value None No culling (default)
    \value Front Cull front faces
    \value Back Cull back faces
 */

/*!
    \enum QRhiGraphicsPipeline::FrontFace
    Specifies the front face winding order

    \value CCW Counter clockwise (default)
    \value CW Clockwise
 */

/*!
    \enum QRhiGraphicsPipeline::ColorMaskComponent
    Flag values for specifying the color write mask

    \value R
    \value G
    \value B
    \value A
 */

/*!
    \enum QRhiGraphicsPipeline::BlendFactor
    Specifies the blend factor

    \value Zero
    \value One
    \value SrcColor
    \value OneMinusSrcColor
    \value DstColor
    \value OneMinusDstColor
    \value SrcAlpha
    \value OneMinusSrcAlpha
    \value DstAlpha
    \value OneMinusDstAlpha
    \value ConstantColor
    \value OneMinusConstantColor
    \value ConstantAlpha
    \value OneMinusConstantAlpha
    \value SrcAlphaSaturate
    \value Src1Color
    \value OneMinusSrc1Color
    \value Src1Alpha
    \value OneMinusSrc1Alpha
 */

/*!
    \enum QRhiGraphicsPipeline::BlendOp
    Specifies the blend operation

    \value Add
    \value Subtract
    \value ReverseSubtract
    \value Min
    \value Max
 */

/*!
    \enum QRhiGraphicsPipeline::CompareOp
    Specifies the depth or stencil comparison function

    \value Never
    \value Less (default for depth)
    \value Equal
    \value LessOrEqual
    \value Greater
    \value NotEqual
    \value GreaterOrEqual
    \value Always (default for stencil)
 */

/*!
    \enum QRhiGraphicsPipeline::StencilOp
    Specifies the stencil operation

    \value StencilZero
    \value Keep (default)
    \value Replace
    \value IncrementAndClamp
    \value DecrementAndClamp
    \value Invert
    \value IncrementAndWrap
    \value DecrementAndWrap
 */

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/*!
    \class QRhiGraphicsPipeline::TargetBlend
    \inmodule QtRhi
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    \brief Describes the blend state for one color attachment.
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    Defaults to color write enabled, blending disabled. The blend values are
    set up for pre-multiplied alpha (One, OneMinusSrcAlpha, One,
    OneMinusSrcAlpha) by default.
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/*!
    \class QRhiGraphicsPipeline::StencilOpState
    \inmodule QtRhi
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    \brief Describes the stencil operation state.
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/*!
    \class QRhiSwapChain
    \inmodule QtRhi
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    \brief Swapchain resource.
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    A swapchain enables presenting rendering results to a surface. A swapchain
    is typically backed by a set of color buffers. Of these, one is displayed
    at a time.

    Below is a typical pattern for creating and managing a swapchain and some
    associated resources in order to render onto a QWindow:

    \badcode
      void init()
      {
          sc = rhi->newSwapChain();
          ds = rhi->newRenderBuffer(QRhiRenderBuffer::DepthStencil,
                                    QSize(), // no need to set the size yet
                                    1,
                                    QRhiRenderBuffer::UsedWithSwapChainOnly);
          sc->setWindow(window);
          sc->setDepthStencil(ds);
          rp = sc->newCompatibleRenderPassDescriptor();
          sc->setRenderPassDescriptor(rp);
          resizeSwapChain();
      }

      void resizeSwapChain()
      {
          const QSize outputSize = sc->surfacePixelSize();
          ds->setPixelSize(outputSize);
          ds->build();
          hasSwapChain = sc->buildOrResize();
      }

      void render()
      {
          if (!hasSwapChain || notExposed)
              return;

          if (sc->currentPixelSize() != sc->surfacePixelSize() || newlyExposed) {
              resizeSwapChain();
              if (!hasSwapChain)
                  return;
              newlyExposed = false;
          }

          rhi->beginFrame(sc);
          // ...
          rhi->endFrame(sc);
      }
    \endcode

    Avoid relying on QWindow resize events to resize swapchains, especially
    considering that surface sizes may not always fully match the QWindow
    reported dimensions. The safe, cross-platform approach is to do the check
    via surfacePixelSize() whenever starting a new frame.

    Releasing the swapchain must happen while the QWindow and the underlying
    native window is fully up and running. Building on the previous example:

    \badcode
        void releaseSwapChain()
        {
            sc->release();
            hasSwapChain = false;
        }

        // assuming Window is our QWindow subclass
        bool Window::event(QEvent *e)
        {
            switch (e->type()) {
            case QEvent::UpdateRequest: // for QWindow::requestUpdate()
                render();
                break;
            case QEvent::PlatformSurface:
                if (static_cast<QPlatformSurfaceEvent *>(e)->surfaceEventType() == QPlatformSurfaceEvent::SurfaceAboutToBeDestroyed)
                    releaseSwapChain();
                break;
            default:
                break;
            }
            return QWindow::event(e);
        }
    \endcode

    Initializing the swapchain and starting to render the first frame cannot
    start at any time. The safe, cross-platform approach is to rely on expose
    events. QExposeEvent is a loosely specified event that is sent whenever a
    window gets mapped, obscured, and resized, depending on the platform.

    \badcode
        void Window::exposeEvent(QExposeEvent *)
        {
            // initialize and start rendering when the window becomes usable for graphics purposes
            if (isExposed() && !running) {
                running = true;
                init();
                render();
            }

            // stop pushing frames when not exposed or size becomes 0
            if ((!isExposed() || (hasSwapChain && sc->surfacePixelSize().isEmpty())) && running)
                notExposed = true;

            // continue when exposed again and the surface has a valid size
            if (isExposed() && running && notExposed && !sc->surfacePixelSize().isEmpty()) {
                notExposed = false;
                newlyExposed = true;
                render();
            }
        }
    \endcode

    Once the rendering has started, a simple way to request a new frame is
    QWindow::requestUpdate(). While on some platforms this is merely a small
    timer, on others it has a specific implementation: for instance on macOS or
    iOS it may be backed by
    \l{https://developer.apple.com/documentation/corevideo/cvdisplaylink?language=objc}{CVDisplayLink}.
    The example above is already prepared for update requests by handling
    QEvent::UpdateRequest.

    While acting as a QRhiRenderTarget, QRhiSwapChain also manages a
    QRhiCommandBuffer. Calling QRhi::endFrame() submits the recorded commands
    and also enqueues a \c present request. The default behavior is to do this
    with a swap interval of 1, meaning synchronizing to the display's vertical
    refresh is enabled. Thus the rendering thread calling beginFrame() and
    endFrame() will get throttled to vsync. On some backends this can be
    disabled by passing QRhiSwapChain:NoVSync in flags().
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 */

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/*!
    \enum QRhiSwapChain::Flag
    Flag values to describe swapchain properties

    \value SurfaceHasPreMulAlpha Indicates that the target surface has
    transparency with premultiplied alpha.

    \value SurfaceHasNonPreMulAlpha Indicates the target surface has
    transparencyt with non-premultiplied alpha.

    \value sRGB Requests to pick an sRGB format.

    \value UsedAsTransferSource Indicates the the swapchain will be used as the
    source of a readback in QRhiResourceUpdateBatch::readBackTexture().

    \value NoVSync Requests disabling waiting for vertical sync, also avoiding
    throttling the rendering thread. The behavior is backend specific and
    applicable only where it is possible to control this. Some may ignore the
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    request altogether. For OpenGL, use QSurfaceFormat::setSwapInterval() instead.
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 */

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/*!
    \class QRhiCommandBuffer
    \inmodule QtRhi
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    \brief Command buffer resource.

    Not creatable by applications at the moment. The only ways to obtain a
    valid QRhiCommandBuffer are to get it from the targeted swapchain via
    QRhiSwapChain::currentFrameCommandBuffer(), or, in case of rendering
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    completely offscreen, initializing one via QRhi::beginOffscreenFrame().
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 */

/*!
    \enum QRhiCommandBuffer::IndexFormat
    Specifies the index data type

    \value IndexUInt16 Unsigned 16-bit (quint16)
    \value IndexUInt32 Unsigned 32-bit (quint32)
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/*!
    \typedef QRhiCommandBuffer::VertexInput

    Synonym for QPair<QRhiBuffer *, quint32>. The second entry is an offset in
    the buffer specified by the first.
*/

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/*!
    \class QRhiResourceUpdateBatch
    \inmodule QtRhi
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    \brief Records upload and copy type of operations.
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    With QRhi it is no longer possible to perform copy type of operations at
    arbitrary times. Instead, all such operations are recorded into batches
    that are then passed, most commonly, to QRhiCommandBuffer::beginPass().
    What then happens under the hood is hidden from the application: the
    underlying implementations can defer and implement these operations in
    various different ways.

    A resource update batch owns no graphics resources and does not perform any
    actual operations on its own. It should rather be viewed as a command
    buffer for update, upload, and copy type of commands.

    To get an available, empty batch from the pool, call
    QRhi::nextResourceUpdateBatch().
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 */

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/*!
    \enum QRhiResourceUpdateBatch::TexturePrepareFlag
    \internal
 */

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/*!
    \internal
 */
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QRhiResource::QRhiResource(QRhiImplementation *rhi_)
    : rhi(rhi_)
{
}

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/*!
   Destructor.
 */
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QRhiResource::~QRhiResource()
{
}

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/*!
    \fn void QRhiResource::release()

    Releases the underlying native graphics resources. Safe to call multiple
    times, subsequent invocations will be a no-op then.

    Once release() is called, the QRhiResource instance can be reused, by
    calling the appropriate \c build() function again, or destroyed.
 */

/*!
    Releases native graphics resources, if there is any, and destroys the
    QRhiResource. Equivalent to \c{r->release(); delete r; }.
 */
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void QRhiResource::releaseAndDestroy()
{
    release();
    delete this;
}

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/*!
    Returns the currently set object name. By default the name is empty.
 */
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QByteArray QRhiResource::name() const
{
    return objectName;
}

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/*!
    Sets a \a name for the object.

    This has two uses: to get descriptive names for the native graphics
    resources visible in graphics debugging tools, such as
    \l{https://renderdoc.org/}{RenderDoc} and
    \l{https://developer.apple.com/xcode/}{XCode}, and in the output stream of
    QRhiProfiler.

    When it comes to naming native objects by relaying the name via the
    appropriate graphics API, note that the name is ignored when
    QRhi::DebugMarkers are not supported, and may, depending on the backend,
    also be ignored when QRhi::EnableDebugMarkers is not set.

    \note The name may be ignored for objects other than buffers,
    renderbuffers, and textures, depending on the backend.

    \note The name may be modified. For slotted resources, such as a QRhiBuffer
    backed by multiple native buffers, QRhi will append a suffix to make the
    underlying native buffers easily distinguishable from each other.
 */
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void QRhiResource::setName(const QByteArray &name)
{
    objectName = name;
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    objectName.replace(',', '_'); // cannot contain comma for QRhiProfiler
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}

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/*!
    \internal
 */
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QRhiBuffer::QRhiBuffer(QRhiImplementation *rhi, Type type_, UsageFlags usage_, int size_)
    : QRhiResource(rhi),
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      m_type(type_), m_usage(usage_), m_size(size_)
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{
}

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/*!
    \fn bool QRhiBuffer::build()

    Creates the corresponding native graphics resources. If there are already
    resources present due to an earlier build() with no corresponding
    release(), then release() is called implicitly first.

    \return \c true when successful, \c false when a graphics operation failed.
    Regardless of the return value, calling release() is always safe.
 */

/*!
    \internal
 */
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QRhiRenderBuffer::QRhiRenderBuffer(QRhiImplementation *rhi, Type type_, const QSize &pixelSize_,
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                                   int sampleCount_, Flags flags_)
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    : QRhiResource(rhi),
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      m_type(type_), m_pixelSize(pixelSize_), m_sampleCount(sampleCount_), m_flags(flags_)
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{
}

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/*!
    \fn bool QRhiRenderBuffer::build()

    Creates the corresponding native graphics resources. If there are already
    resources present due to an earlier build() with no corresponding
    release(), then release() is called implicitly first.

    \return \c true when successful, \c false when a graphics operation failed.
    Regardless of the return value, calling release() is always safe.
 */

/*!
    \internal
 */
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QRhiTexture::QRhiTexture(QRhiImplementation *rhi, Format format_, const QSize &pixelSize_,
                         int sampleCount_, Flags flags_)
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    : QRhiResource(rhi),
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      m_format(format_), m_pixelSize(pixelSize_), m_sampleCount(sampleCount_), m_flags(flags_)
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{
}

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/*!
    \fn bool QRhiTexture::build()

    Creates the corresponding native graphics resources. If there are already
    resources present due to an earlier build() with no corresponding
    release(), then release() is called implicitly first.

    \return \c true when successful, \c false when a graphics operation failed.
    Regardless of the return value, calling release() is always safe.
 */

/*!
    \return a pointer to a backend-specific QRhiNativeHandles subclass, such as
    QRhiVulkanTextureNativeHandles. The returned value is null when exposing
    the underlying native resources is not supported by the backend.
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    \sa QRhiVulkanTextureNativeHandles, QRhiD3D11TextureNativeHandles,
    QRhiMetalTextureNativeHandles, QRhiGles2TextureNativeHandles
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 */
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const QRhiNativeHandles *QRhiTexture::nativeHandles()
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{
    return nullptr;
}

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/*!
    Similar to build() except that no new native textures are created. Instead,
    the texture from \a src is used.

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    This allows importing an existing native texture object (which must belong
    to the same device or sharing context, depending on the graphics API) from
    an external graphics engine.

    \note format(), pixelSize(), sampleCount(), and flags() must still be set
    correctly. Passing incorrect sizes and other values to QRhi::newTexture()
    and then following it with a buildFrom() expecting that the native texture
    object alone is sufficient to deduce such values is \b wrong and will lead
    to problems.
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    \note QRhiTexture does not take ownership of the texture object. release()
    does not free the object or any associated memory.

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    The opposite of this operation, exposing a QRhiTexture-created native
    texture object to a foreign engine, is possible via nativeHandles().

    \sa QRhiVulkanTextureNativeHandles, QRhiD3D11TextureNativeHandles,
    QRhiMetalTextureNativeHandles, QRhiGles2TextureNativeHandles
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 */
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bool QRhiTexture::buildFrom(const QRhiNativeHandles *src)
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{
    Q_UNUSED(src);
    return false;
}

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/*!
    \internal
 */
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QRhiSampler::QRhiSampler(QRhiImplementation *rhi,
                         Filter magFilter_, Filter minFilter_, Filter mipmapMode_,
                         AddressMode u_, AddressMode v_, AddressMode w_)
    : QRhiResource(rhi),
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      m_magFilter(magFilter_), m_minFilter(minFilter_), m_mipmapMode(mipmapMode_),
      m_addressU(u_), m_addressV(v_), m_addressW(w_)
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{
}

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/*!
    \internal
 */
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QRhiRenderPassDescriptor::QRhiRenderPassDescriptor(QRhiImplementation *rhi)
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    : QRhiResource(rhi)
{
}

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/*!
    \internal
 */
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QRhiRenderTarget::QRhiRenderTarget(QRhiImplementation *rhi)
    : QRhiResource(rhi)
{
}

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/*!
    \fn QRhiRenderTarget::Type QRhiRenderTarget::type() const

    \return the type of the render target.
 */

/*!
    \fn QSize QRhiRenderTarget::sizeInPixels() const

    \return the size in pixels.
 */

/*!
    \fn float QRhiRenderTarget::devicePixelRatio() const

    \return the device pixel ratio. For QRhiTextureRenderTarget this is always
    1. For targets retrieved from a QRhiSwapChain the value reflects the
    \l{QWindow::devicePixelRatio()}{device pixel ratio} of the targeted
    QWindow.
 */

/*!
    \internal
 */
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QRhiReferenceRenderTarget::QRhiReferenceRenderTarget(QRhiImplementation *rhi)
    : QRhiRenderTarget(rhi)
{
}

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/*!
    \internal
 */
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QRhiTextureRenderTarget::QRhiTextureRenderTarget(QRhiImplementation *rhi,
                                                 const QRhiTextureRenderTargetDescription &desc_,
                                                 Flags flags_)
    : QRhiRenderTarget(rhi),
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      m_desc(desc_),
      m_flags(flags_)
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{
}

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/*!
    \fn QRhiRenderPassDescriptor *QRhiTextureRenderTarget::newCompatibleRenderPassDescriptor()

    \return a new QRhiRenderPassDescriptor that is compatible with this render
    target.

    The returned value is used in two ways: it can be passed to
    setRenderPassDescriptor() and
    QRhiGraphicsPipeline::setRenderPassDescriptor(). A render pass descriptor
    describes the attachments (color, depth/stencil) and the load/store
    behavior that can be affected by flags(). A QRhiGraphicsPipeline can only
    be used in combination with a render target that has the same
    QRhiRenderPassDescriptor set.

    Two QRhiTextureRenderTarget instances can share the same render pass
    descriptor as long as they have the same number and type of attachments.
    The associated QRhiTexture or QRhiRenderBuffer instances are not part of
    the render pass descriptor so those can differ in the two
    QRhiTextureRenderTarget intances.

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    \note resources, such as QRhiTexture instances, referenced in description()
    must already be built

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    \sa build()
 */

/*!
    \fn bool QRhiTextureRenderTarget::build()

    Creates the corresponding native graphics resources. If there are already
    resources present due to an earlier build() with no corresponding
    release(), then release() is called implicitly first.

    \note renderPassDescriptor() must be set before calling build(). To obtain
    a QRhiRenderPassDescriptor compatible with the render target, call
    newCompatibleRenderPassDescriptor() before build() but after setting all
    other parameters, such as description() and flags(). To save resources,
    reuse the same QRhiRenderPassDescriptor with multiple
    QRhiTextureRenderTarget instances, whenever possible. Sharing the same
    render pass descriptor is only possible when the render targets have the
    same number and type of attachments (the actual textures can differ) and
    the same flags.

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    \note resources, such as QRhiTexture instances, referenced in description()
    must already be built

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    \return \c true when successful, \c false when a graphics operation failed.
    Regardless of the return value, calling release() is always safe.
 */

/*!
    \internal
 */
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QRhiShaderResourceBindings::QRhiShaderResourceBindings(QRhiImplementation *rhi)
    : QRhiResource(rhi)
{
}

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/*!
    Returns a shader resource binding for the given binding number, pipeline
    stage, and buffer specified by \a binding_, \a stage_, and \a buf_.
 */
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QRhiShaderResourceBinding QRhiShaderResourceBinding::uniformBuffer(
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        int binding_, StageFlags stage_, QRhiBuffer *buf_)
{
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    QRhiShaderResourceBinding b;
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    b.binding = binding_;
    b.stage = stage_;
    b.type = UniformBuffer;
    b.ubuf.buf = buf_;
    b.ubuf.offset = 0;
    b.ubuf.maybeSize = 0; // entire buffer
    return b;
}

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/*!
    Returns a shader resource binding for the given binding number, pipeline
    stage, and buffer specified by \a binding_, \a stage_, and \a buf_. This
    overload binds a region only, as specified by \a offset_ and \a size_.

    \note It is up to the user to ensure the offset is aligned to
    QRhi::ubufAlignment().
 */
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QRhiShaderResourceBinding QRhiShaderResourceBinding::uniformBuffer(
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        int binding_, StageFlags stage_, QRhiBuffer *buf_, int offset_, int size_)
{
    Q_ASSERT(size_ > 0);
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    QRhiShaderResourceBinding b;
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    b.binding = binding_;
    b.stage = stage_;
    b.type = UniformBuffer;
    b.ubuf.buf = buf_;
    b.ubuf.offset = offset_;
    b.ubuf.maybeSize = size_;
    return b;
}

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/*!
    Returns a shader resource binding for the given binding number, pipeline
    stage, texture, and sampler specified by \a binding_, \a stage_, \a tex_,
    \a sampler_.
 */
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QRhiShaderResourceBinding QRhiShaderResourceBinding::sampledTexture(
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        int binding_, StageFlags stage_, QRhiTexture *tex_, QRhiSampler *sampler_)
{
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    QRhiShaderResourceBinding b;
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    b.binding = binding_;
    b.stage = stage_;
    b.type = SampledTexture;
    b.stex.tex = tex_;
    b.stex.sampler = sampler_;
    return b;
}

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/*!
    \internal
 */
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QRhiGraphicsPipeline::QRhiGraphicsPipeline(QRhiImplementation *rhi)
    : QRhiResource(rhi)
{
}

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/*!
    \fn bool QRhiGraphicsPipeline::build()

    Creates the corresponding native graphics resources. If there are already
    resources present due to an earlier build() with no corresponding
    release(), then release() is called implicitly first.

    \return \c true when successful, \c false when a graphics operation failed.
    Regardless of the return value, calling release() is always safe.
 */

/*!
    \internal
 */
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QRhiSwapChain::QRhiSwapChain(QRhiImplementation *rhi)
    : QRhiResource(rhi)
{
}

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/*!
    \fn QObject *QRhiSwapChain::target() const
    \internal
 */

/*!
    \fn void QRhiSwapChain::setTarget(QObject *obj)
    \internal
 */

/*!
    \fn QSize QRhiSwapChain::currentPixelSize() const

    \return the size with which the swapchain was last successfully built. Use
    this to decide if buildOrResize() needs to be called again: if
    \c{currentPixelSize() != surfacePixelSize()} then the swapchain needs to be
    resized.

    \sa surfacePixelSize()
  */

/*!
    \fn QSize QRhiSwapChain::surfacePixelSize()

    \return The size of the window's associated surface or layer. Do not assume
    this is the same as QWindow::size() * QWindow::devicePixelRatio().

    Can be called before buildOrResize() (but with window() already set), which
    allows setting the correct size for the depth-stencil buffer that is then
    used together with the swapchain's color buffers. Also used in combination
    with currentPixelSize() to detect size changes.

    \sa currentPixelSize()
  */

/*!
    \fn QRhiCommandBuffer *QRhiSwapChain::currentFrameCommandBuffer()

    \return a command buffer on which rendering commands can be recorded. Only
    valid within a Rhi::beginFrame() - QRhi::endFrame() block where
    beginFrame() was called with this swapchain.

    \note the value must not be cached and reused between frames
*/

/*!
    \fn QRhiRenderTarget *QRhiSwapChain::currentFrameRenderTarget()

    \return a render target that can used with beginPass() in order to render
    the the swapchain's current backbuffer. Only valid within a
    QRhi::beginFrame() - QRhi::endFrame() block where beginFrame() was called
    with this swapchain.

    \note the value must not be cached and reused between frames
 */

/*!
    \fn bool QRhiSwapChain::buildOrResize()

    Creates the swapchain if not already done and resizes the swapchain buffers
    to match the current size of the targeted surface. Call this whenever the
    size of the target surface is different than before.

    \note call release() only when the swapchain needs to be released
    completely, typically upon
    QPlatformSurfaceEvent::SurfaceAboutToBeDestroyed. To perform resizing, just
    call buildOrResize().

    \return \c true when successful, \c false when a graphics operation failed.
    Regardless of the return value, calling release() is always safe.
 */

/*!
    \internal
 */
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QRhiCommandBuffer::QRhiCommandBuffer(QRhiImplementation *rhi)
    : QRhiResource(rhi)
{
}

QRhiImplementation::~QRhiImplementation()
{
    qDeleteAll(resUpdPool);
}

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void QRhiImplementation::sendVMemStatsToProfiler()
{
    // nothing to do in the default implementation
}

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bool QRhiImplementation::isCompressedFormat(QRhiTexture::Format format) const
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{
    return (format >= QRhiTexture::BC1 && format <= QRhiTexture::BC7)
            || (format >= QRhiTexture::ETC2_RGB8 && format <= QRhiTexture::ETC2_RGBA8)
            || (format >= QRhiTexture::ASTC_4x4 && format <= QRhiTexture::ASTC_12x12);
}

void QRhiImplementation::compressedFormatInfo(QRhiTexture::Format format, const QSize &size,
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                                              quint32 *bpl, quint32 *byteSize,
                                              QSize *blockDim) const
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{
    int xdim = 4;
    int ydim = 4;
    quint32 blockSize = 0;

    switch (format) {
    case QRhiTexture::BC1:
        blockSize = 8;
        break;
    case QRhiTexture::BC2:
        blockSize = 16;
        break;
    case QRhiTexture::BC3:
        blockSize = 16;
        break;
    case QRhiTexture::BC4:
        blockSize = 8;
        break;
    case QRhiTexture::BC5:
        blockSize = 16;
        break;
    case QRhiTexture::BC6H:
        blockSize = 16;
        break;
    case QRhiTexture::BC7:
        blockSize = 16;
        break;

    case QRhiTexture::ETC2_RGB8:
        blockSize = 8;
        break;
    case QRhiTexture::ETC2_RGB8A1:
        blockSize = 8;
        break;
    case QRhiTexture::ETC2_RGBA8:
        blockSize = 16;
        break;

    case QRhiTexture::ASTC_4x4:
        blockSize = 16;
        break;
    case QRhiTexture::ASTC_5x4:
        blockSize = 16;
        xdim = 5;
        break;
    case QRhiTexture::ASTC_5x5:
        blockSize = 16;
        xdim = ydim = 5;
        break;
    case QRhiTexture::ASTC_6x5:
        blockSize = 16;
        xdim = 6;
        ydim = 5;
        break;
    case QRhiTexture::ASTC_6x6:
        blockSize = 16;
        xdim = ydim = 6;
        break;
    case QRhiTexture::ASTC_8x5:
        blockSize = 16;
        xdim = 8;
        ydim = 5;
        break;
    case QRhiTexture::ASTC_8x6:
        blockSize = 16;
        xdim = 8;
        ydim = 6;
        break;
    case QRhiTexture::ASTC_8x8:
        blockSize = 16;
        xdim = ydim = 8;
        break;
    case QRhiTexture::ASTC_10x5:
        blockSize = 16;
        xdim = 10;
        ydim = 5;
        break;
    case QRhiTexture::ASTC_10x6:
        blockSize = 16;
        xdim = 10;
        ydim = 6;
        break;
    case QRhiTexture::ASTC_10x8:
        blockSize = 16;
        xdim = 10;
        ydim = 8;
        break;
    case QRhiTexture::ASTC_10x10:
        blockSize = 16;
        xdim = ydim = 10;
        break;
    case QRhiTexture::ASTC_12x10:
        blockSize = 16;
        xdim = 12;
        ydim = 10;
        break;
    case QRhiTexture::ASTC_12x12:
        blockSize = 16;
        xdim = ydim = 12;
        break;

    default:
        Q_UNREACHABLE();
        break;
    }

    const quint32 wblocks = (size.width() + xdim - 1) / xdim;
    const quint32 hblocks = (size.height() + ydim - 1) / ydim;

    if (bpl)
        *bpl = wblocks * blockSize;
    if (byteSize)
        *byteSize = wblocks * hblocks * blockSize;
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    if (blockDim)
        *blockDim = QSize(xdim, ydim);
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}

void QRhiImplementation::textureFormatInfo(QRhiTexture::Format format, const QSize &size,
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                                           quint32 *bpl, quint32 *byteSize) const
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{
    if (isCompressedFormat(format)) {
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        compressedFormatInfo(format, size, bpl, byteSize, nullptr);
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        return;
    }

    quint32 bpc = 0;
    switch (format) {
    case QRhiTexture::RGBA8:
        bpc = 4;
        break;
    case QRhiTexture::BGRA8:
        bpc = 4;
        break;
    case QRhiTexture::R8:
        bpc = 1;
        break;
    case QRhiTexture::R16:
        bpc = 2;
        break;

    case QRhiTexture::D16:
        bpc = 2;
        break;
    case QRhiTexture::D32:
        bpc = 4;
        break;

    default:
        Q_UNREACHABLE();
        break;
    }

    if (bpl)
        *bpl = size.width() * bpc;
    if (byteSize)
        *byteSize = size.width() * size.height() * bpc;
}

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// Approximate because it excludes subresource alignment or multisampling.
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quint32 QRhiImplementation::approxByteSizeForTexture(QRhiTexture::Format format, const QSize &baseSize,
                                                     int mipCount, int layerCount)
{
    quint32 approxSize = 0;
    for (int level = 0; level < mipCount; ++level) {
        quint32 byteSize = 0;
        const QSize size(qFloor(float(qMax(1, baseSize.width() >> level))),
                         qFloor(float(qMax(1, baseSize.height() >> level))));
        textureFormatInfo(format, size, nullptr, &byteSize);
        approxSize += byteSize;
    }
    approxSize *= layerCount;
    return approxSize;
}

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/*!
    \internal
 */
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QRhi::QRhi()
{
}

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/*!
    Destructor. Destroys the backend and releases resources.
 */
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QRhi::~QRhi()
{
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    if (d) {
        d->destroy();
        delete d;
    }
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}

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/*!
    \return a new QRhi instance with a backend for the graphics API specified by \a impl.

    \a params must point to an instance of one of the backend-specific
    subclasses of QRhiInitParams, such as, QRhiVulkanInitParams,
    QRhiMetalInitParams, QRhiD3D11InitParams, QRhiGles2InitParams. See these
    classes for examples on creating a QRhi.

    \a flags is optional. It is used to enable profile and debug related
    features that are potentially expensive and should only be used during
    development.
 */
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QRhi *QRhi::create(Implementation impl, QRhiInitParams *params, Flags flags)
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{
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    QScopedPointer<QRhi> r(new QRhi);

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    switch (impl) {
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    case Null:
        r->d = new QRhiNull(params);
        break;
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    case Vulkan:
#if QT_CONFIG(vulkan)
        r->d = new QRhiVulkan(params);
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        break;
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#else
        qWarning("This build of Qt has no Vulkan support");
        break;
#endif
    case OpenGLES2:
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#ifndef QT_NO_OPENGL
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        r->d = new QRhiGles2(params);
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        break;
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#else
        qWarning("This build of Qt has no OpenGL support");
        break;
#endif
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    case D3D11:
#ifdef Q_OS_WIN
        r->d = new QRhiD3D11(params);
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        break;
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#else
        qWarning("This platform has no Direct3D 11 support");
        break;
#endif
    case Metal:
#ifdef Q_OS_DARWIN
        r->d = new QRhiMetal(params);
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        break;
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#else
        qWarning("This platform has no Metal support");
        break;
#endif
    default:
        break;
    }
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    if (r->d) {
        if (flags.testFlag(EnableProfiling)) {
            QRhiProfilerPrivate *profD = QRhiProfilerPrivate::get(&r->d->profiler);
            profD->rhi = r.data();
            profD->rhiD = r->d;
        }
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        r->d->debugMarkers = flags.testFlag(EnableDebugMarkers);
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        if (r->d->create(flags))
            return r.take();
    }
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    return nullptr;
}

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/*!
    \internal
 */
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QRhiResourceUpdateBatch::QRhiResourceUpdateBatch(QRhiImplementation *rhi)
    : d(new QRhiResourceUpdateBatchPrivate)
{
    d->q = this;
    d->rhi = rhi;
}

QRhiResourceUpdateBatch::~QRhiResourceUpdateBatch()
{
    delete d;
}

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/*!
    Returns the batch to the pool. This should only be used when the batch is
    not passed to one of QRhiCommandBuffer::beginPass(),
    QRhiCommandBuffer::endPass(), or QRhiCommandBuffer::resourceUpdate()
    because these implicitly call release().

    \note QRhiResourceUpdateBatch instances must never by \c deleted by
    applications.
 */
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void QRhiResourceUpdateBatch::release()
{
    d->free();
}

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/*!
    Copies all queued operations from the \a other batch into this one.

    \note \a other is not changed in any way, typically it will still need a
    release()

    This allows for a convenient pattern where resource updates that are
    already known during the initialization step are collected into a batch
    that is then merged into another when starting to first render pass later
    on:

    \badcode
    void init()
    {
        ...
        initialUpdates = rhi->nextResourceUpdateBatch();
        initialUpdates->uploadStaticBuffer(vbuf, vertexData);
        initialUpdates->uploadStaticBuffer(ibuf, indexData);
        ...
    }

    void render()
    {
        ...
        QRhiResourceUpdateBatch *resUpdates = rhi->nextResourceUpdateBatch();
        if (initialUpdates) {
            resUpdates->merge(initialUpdates);
            initialUpdates->release();
            initialUpdates = nullptr;
        }
        resUpdates->updateDynamicBuffer(...);
        ...
        cb->beginPass(rt, clearCol, clearDs, resUpdates);
    }
    \endcode
 */
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void QRhiResourceUpdateBatch::merge(QRhiResourceUpdateBatch *other)
{
    d->merge(other->d);
}

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/*!
    Enqueues updating a region of a QRhiBuffer \a buf created with the type
    QRhiBuffer::Dynamic.

    The region is specified \a offset and \a size. The actual bytes to write
    are specified by \a data which must have at least \a size bytes available.
    \a data can safely be destroyed or changed once this function returns since
    it takes a copy internally as necessary.

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    \note If host writes are involved, which is the case with
    updateDynamicBuffer() typically as such buffers are backed by host visible
    memory with most backends, they may accumulate within a frame. Thus pass 1
    reading a region changed by a batch passed to pass 2 may see the changes
    specified in pass 2's update batch.
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    \note QRhi transparently manages double buffering in order to prevent
    stalling the graphics pipeline. The fact that a QRhiBuffer may have
    multiple native underneath can be safely ignored when using the QRhi and
    QRhiResourceUpdateBatch.
 */
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void QRhiResourceUpdateBatch::updateDynamicBuffer(QRhiBuffer *buf, int offset, int size, const void *data)
{
    d->dynamicBufferUpdates.append({ buf, offset, size, data });
}

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/*!
    Enqueues updating a region of a QRhiBuffer \a buf created with the type
    QRhiBuffer::Immutable or QRhiBuffer::Static.

    The region is specified \a offset and \a size. The actual bytes to write
    are specified by \a data which must have at least \a size bytes available.
    \a data can safely be destroyed or changed once this function returns since
    it takes a copy internally as necessary.
 */
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void QRhiResourceUpdateBatch::uploadStaticBuffer(QRhiBuffer *buf, int offset, int size, const void *data)
{
    d->staticBufferUploads.append({ buf, offset, size, data });
}

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/*!
    Enqueues updating the entire QRhiBuffer \a buf created with the type
    QRhiBuffer::Immutable or QRhiBuffer::Static.
 */
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void QRhiResourceUpdateBatch::uploadStaticBuffer(QRhiBuffer *buf, const void *data)
{
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    d->staticBufferUploads.append({ buf, 0, 0, data });
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}

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/*!
    Enqueues uploading the image data for one or more mip levels in one or more
    layers of the texture \a tex.

    The details of the copy (source QImage or compressed texture data, regions,
    target layers and levels) are described in \a desc.
 */
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void QRhiResourceUpdateBatch::uploadTexture(QRhiTexture *tex, const QRhiTextureUploadDescription &desc)
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{
    d->textureUploads.append({ tex, desc });
}

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/*!
    Enqueues uploading the image data for mip level 0 of layer 0 of the texture
    \a tex.